Anti-Gender Politics in Latin America: Abstracts of Country Case Studies
– Gender Ideology, Catholic Neointegrismo, and Evangelical Fundamentalism: The Anti-Democratic Vocation, by Gabriela Arguedas Ramírez
This article offers a synthesis of the theoretical development in the cultural studies of religion, that analyze the phenomenon of neo-Pentecostal religious fundamentalism and Catholic neointegrism. The flag against the alleged “gender ideology” (i.e., a movement against all theories and activities that refute the way gender, sexuality and reproduction are understood by the Catholic doctrine) is one of the central pieces in the ultraconservative rhetoric.
– The Case of Argentina, by Maximiliano Campana
This article addresses how the Catholic Church and the national government are deeply intertwined in the socio-political reality of the country. The Catholic Church’s privileged role has shaped local reality since the nation’s establishment, and it generates to this day strong resistance not only by those who advocate for the total separation of state and church, but also by members of other faiths who oppose taking a subordinate place in national politics.
– The Case of Brazil, by Sonia Corrêa and Isabela Kalil
This article provides a compilation of the political circumstances that contributed to the current Brazilian scenario and an analysis of the structure that gave fertile ground to the flourishing of anti-gender forces. It cites key findings based on the conservative discourses analysis on gender in the press, in internet searches and in field research.
– The Case of Chile, by Jaime Barrientos
This exploratory study seeks to understand the origins and developments of anti-gender movements in Chile through document analysis, press, and interviews with key actors in the field. It looks at some important milestones, such as the legislative debates on academic freedom and the Anti-Discrimination Act, and several controversies and tensions between ‘pro-rights’ and ‘anti-rights’ groups.
– The Case of Colombia, by Franklin Gil Hernández
This study analyzes how conservative actors have been carrying out activities against sexual and reproductive rights and against gender equality policies that benefit women and LGBT populations in Colombia. For this purpose, a review of academic literature and press reports, field observations and interviews with qualified informants were made.
– The Case of Costa Rica, by Gabriela Arguedas Ramírez
This chapter describes and analyzes the main discourses of the conservative political-religious movements (Catholic and Neo-Pentecostal) in Costa Rica. Particular interest is given to the political-electoral impact that these conservative movements have obtained, through a rhetoric that capitalizes on an association between moral panic about gender and sexuality, and the fear of leftist political alternatives.
– The Case of Ecuador, by Maria Amelia Viteri
Ecuador’s ex-president Correa was the first in Latin America to use the term “gender ideology” during his weekly broadcast in 2013, when he criticized gender studies, claiming that they “academically do not stand up to the slightest scrutiny” because they would destroy the family.
– The Case of Mexico, by Gloria Careaga and Luz Elena Aranda
Since the 1990s, with the relaxation of secularism, the Catholic Church has sought to regain influence on politics, laws and public policies in Mexico. This movement enabled conservative religious politicians to intervene in public education and the media, which facilitated and expanded the spread of their moral vision.
– The Case of Paraguay, by Clyde Soto and Lilian Soto
In Paraguay, anti-gender offensives have taken shape from older formations who called themselves “pro-life” and who have operated since the 1980s while the country was being democratized and the feminist agenda was being promoted. This article analyzes two general lines of development in anti-gender campaigns: actors and targets.
– The Case of Uruguay, by Lilián Abracinskas, Santiago Puyol, Stefanie Kreher, Nicolas Iglesias
Since the early 2000s, Uruguay has stood out in Latin America as the country that achieved many significant gains in terms of the so-called new democratic rights agenda. However, it was this same perspective that drove anti-gender forces to view the country as a “bad example” that must be turned.
– The Case of the Organization of American States, by Mirta Moragas
This research recounts and analyzes the development ofanti-gender groups at the General Assembly of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) from 2013, seeking to identify its main actors, strategies, arguments and effects.
FULL ABSTRACTS (in English): Sexuality Policy Watch, 21 January 2021 ;
PHOTO by EPA, in: IPS Journal, 31 May 2018. Hundreds of people take part during a demonstration in front of the Paraguayan Congress in Asunción to claim a public education system based on traditional family values.